How to Make an Automatic Plant Watering System

If you often go out of town for extended periods, it is always worrisome how to water your plants. You can’t always bother your friends and neighbors to water your plants. And if you have indoor plants then you can’t even tell them. 

In this situation, an automatic plant watering system comes to rescue your plants. This system takes care of your plant watering needs, to give you peace of mind while you are on a long vacation. You can use this system even if you are at home to spare extra time to do other things.

Here we will help you how you can make an automatic plant watering system on your own that will ensure your garden is green and healthy.


automatic plant watering system
Automatic Plant Watering

What is an Automatic Plant Watering System?

When you find the plant soil is losing its moisture, you water your plant to keep it green. An automatic plant watering system works on the same principle to gauge the moisture level of plant soil using a solid moisture sensor to keep your plant green. The soil moisture sensor collects the data and sends it to the microcontroller which reads the data and compares it with the integrated threshold value and commands the motor driver to start the water pump motor. 

Water flows through the pipes connected to the water pump motor sprinkling on your plant. When the soil moisture reaches a specific threshold the soil moisture sensor again sends a signal to the microcontroller which reads the data and commands the water motor to stop the water flow. 

The components you need to make an automatic plant watering system are:

  • Soil Moisture Sensor
  • Microcontroller 
  • Motor Driver 
  • Water Pump Motor
  • Pipe 
  • Connection Wires 
  • Water Bucket 
  • Power Supply

So let’s dive in to know how you can make your own automatic plant watering system using the above components.


When you are designing the PCB for your automatic plant watering system the most essential part of your system is the microcontroller, which is responsible for receiving data from soil moisture sensors and sending commands to the motor driver to start and stop the water flow.  

You can use a microcontroller (such as UNO, Nano, or Mega) that is easily available in the market to build your PCB. You need a bit of soldering to fix the microcontroller on the PCB board. Moreover, you need to program the chip through a USB. 

Motor Driver

The next important component of the system is the motor driver which receives commands from the microcontroller to start and stop the water flow. The microcontroller sends a command to the motor driver based on the data it received from the soil moisture sensor. Based on the threshold level the motor starts and stops the flow of water to your plant. The motor driver needs to be connected to the main BCP board. 

Soil Moisture Sensor

The core of this entire automatic watering system is a soil moisture sensor. It is put deep inside the soil to gauge the level of moisture. Based on the level of moisture in the soil, the sensor sends data to the microcontroller which, based on the threshold programmed in it, commands the motor driver to start and stop the water flow. 

automatic plant watering system
How Do Indoor Self Watering Planters Work?

Programing (Coding)

The next crucial step is programming your chip with adequate coding so that it works according to your requirement. You can code on your own or can use open-source coding to program your microcontroller so that it works properly. You can change the mixture threshold level based on your plant watering needs.


The next step is connecting each part properly so that the entire system works in tandem. Ensure that all your wire connections are made properly on the PCB board. Make sure adequate voltage of electric current is supplied to the microcontroller and motor driver. Tape all the open wires properly so that you don’t get any electric shock. Connect all the pipes with motors to ensure the unobstructed flow of water. 


The last step is to install all the parts in the right place to make your automatic plant watering system work smoothly. Soil moisture sensors should be adequately put in the plant soil so that its recipients get the correct data. Put it away from the water pipe. 

You can use a plastic box to put all the electronic equipment including a microprocessor, motor driver, BCP, and wires in one place. Make holes for pipes and wires. Install the water pipe at the appropriate height of the plant. Put the other end of the pipe in the water bucket. 


Next time you plan a long outstation trip, you will need not worry about your plant and garden. You no longer need to tell your neighbors or friends to water your plant as an automatic plant watering system is there to take care of them. With a small expense and technical knowledge, you can make your own watering system. All you need is a soil moisture sensor, microcontroller, motor driver, water pump, motor pipe connection wires,  water bucket, and power supply.


1. How do I make an automatic plant watering system?

The following components are needed to make an automatic plant watering system:

  • Soil Moisture Sensor 
  • Microcontroller 
  • Motor Driver 
  • Water Pump 
  • Motor Pipe 
  • Connection Wires 
  • Water Bucket 
  • Power Supply
automatic plant watering system
Which Microcontroller and Motor Driver?

2. How can I water my plants while away for a month?

With the help of an automatic plant watering system, you can water your plant or garden for a number of days subject to adequate water in the container.

3.  How can I keep my indoor plants watered while on vacation?

Whether it is an indoor or outdoor plant, an automatic plant watering system will work perfectly for all types of plants while you’re not in town.

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